Alfred de Grazia & Earl R. Milton: Solaria Binaria - The Solar System as Electrical
(with technical note on Cosmic Electrical Charges)
Earl R. Milton and Alfred de Grazia in Naxos (1980), working on Solaria Binaria
The Sun, as a star, radiates energy into the space surrounding it. Stars can be conceived to have originated from electrical cavities in the structure of space. Space, to our mind, is an infinite electrical medium. It is electrical in that it is everywhere occupied by a charge, which, when it moves, assumes the character of electrons, that is, "negative" charge (See technical note below). The movement energizes and carries material into the cavities which become and are the stars.
Such electrical cavities or stars are observed in the millions, and inferred in the billions, in a fairly random distribution about the Sun. They form a lagoon of stars that is called the Galaxy, through which the Sun moves in a manner, and with consequences, to be described in the next chapter. Materially, a star is an agglomeration of all that has accompanied the inflow of electrical charges from surrounding space. The cosmic dust which astronomers see throughout the galaxies is matter yet to be forced into stellar cavities, or matter that has been expelled after a star dies. This dust is detected in greatest amounts in the vicinity of the most highly active stars.
Once in the cavity, the material cannot readily escape; it acquires increasing density because of electro-chemical binding and electrical accumulation. A cavity or star is increasingly charged but during its lifetime it cannot be more charged than the medium around it. The Sun is highly charged, as some scientists have lately concluded (Bailey, 1960).
The life history of any new star may normally proceed as its cavity acquires first matter, and then charges continuously until its charge density reaches equilibrium with the surrounding medium, which is to say that the cavity has then been filled. Thereupon the star releases or mixes its material with the medium until it no longer possesses distinction as a body. This "normal" procedure is conditional upon the star's transacting with the space around it in a uniform manner. The majority of stars seem to transact quietly with their surrounding space, whether they are small red stars, or giant red stars. They end their existences as they lived, quietly, passing their accumulated material into the medium of space, eventually becoming indistinguishable from the medium itself.
However, the fact that the star is in motion within the galactic medium poses an occasional problem. It may journey into regions of the Galaxy which present it with greater or lesser electrical differences than it has been used to. Then quantavolution occurs. The star becomes one of the types to which astronomers pay the most attention - the variable stars, the highly luminous stars, the binary stars, the exploding stars.
It was in one such adventure in space that the original Super Sun lost its steady state, fissioned, and became Solaria
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Technical Note: On Cosmic Electrical Charges
For a time we, like others before us, considered the solar charge to be of positive sign, because of the gradual acceleration of the proton wind as it moves away from the Sun. However, this same phenomenon can be viewed as a flow of ions towards a surrounding region of negative electrical charge.
Insofar as solar wind electrons have, if any, only trivial anisotropy in their motion and since detected cosmic-ray ions - which Juergens (1972) has described as the spent wind from the most luminous stars - outnumber cosmic-ray electrons by at least two orders of magnitude, it is logical to conclude that within the region of the Sun most electrons are occupied with sustaining the transaction tending to eliminate the solar cavity. These electrons are not free: they form a => transactive matrix enveloping the Solar System.
Cells, and maybe even whole biological organisms, are surrounded by charged "skins" or "sheaths" (Ency. Brit., 1974, Macro., vol. 3, pp. 1045 ff.) Their interiors are even more charged than their perimeters, which indicates to us that these biological entities are electron collectors. This, we argue, also applies to the operation of the Sun.
Atoms may be considered in the same way. The atom has long been known to be characterized by electric transactions forming both the inter-atomic linkages (which create molecules of many kinds) and the inter-atomic coupling, which defines the "electron-shells" of the atom and may even delineate the chemical elements themselves.
The atom is modeled here as a plenum of charge enveloping a nucleus, which we regard as a massive, dense, compact electrical cavity. Like the cell, the atom exposes to the world a negatively charged perimeter. We therefore chose in this work to avoid speaking of negative and positive ions (say, for example, electrons and protons) being produced when an electron is removed from an atom. Rather we speak of electrons and electron-deficient atoms.
This rhetoric then allows us to describe net charges on bodies that are "negative" (as with the Galaxy, the Sun and the cell) without specifying the sign of the charge. When we refer to ions in this work, we always mean electron-rich atom or molecule. It is noteworthy that atoms are almost always detected and measured when their electrons undergo some form of transition that defines the energy levels and reactions of the atoms. Electrons seem to be the monetary currency of the Universe; stars, cells, and atoms transact and transform to obtain them.
It seems to us that the Solar System's development from creative-nova into binary, through the destructive nova which freed the planets and in the subsequent rearrangement and destructive encounters, is also a story of electron exchanges on the grandest of scales.
(2) The consequences of the temporary overcharging are described later when we consider stellar novae (Chapter Thirteen).
(3) See Bruce (1966b) for a discussion which compares a lightning discharges to the light curve for Nova Herculis 1934. Bruce (1944) mentions a discharge of the order of 10 20 coulombs in the nova outburst. We see this atmospheric discharge as an electrical readjustment required after the star has responded to its changed environment.
(4) Lyttleton (1938) has argued that rotational fission cannot result in the formation of a stable binary system, but his arguments are probably invalid if the bodies at fission are highly charged ( and of the same sign) but in different amounts (Note C). In this instance, immediate electrical transaction between the stars may allow non-collisional orbits to be stable, where they otherwise would not. Later criticism and support are well summarized by Batten (1973b). The arguments they're about the stability of binary orbits over long times are in question because of the work of Bass. Likewise, the claim that fission cannot occur because stellar cores cannot remain uncoupled from stellar envelopes once rotational distortion becomes appreciable is also in question if the process producing the rotation begins in the envelope rather than in the core.
(5) Juergens (1979b) believes the spicule is a fountain pumping electrons from the solar surface high into the corona. If he is correct, the upward motions detected spectroscopically in the spicules are produced by atoms bombarded by the electron flow. The electrons supplied by the spicules are necessary to allow ions to travel away from the solar surface.( See also Milton, 1979.)
(6) A facula (Lat : "torch") is a bright region seen best near the limb of the Sun where the underlying photosphere appears less bright.
(7) The temperature deduced from the spectrum is millions => Kelvin.
(8) Specifically, atoms heavier than helium which have lost several electrons are detected. In the corona, hydrogen and helium are present too, but cannot be detected since they have lost all of their electrons.
(9) Replacement of the corona in one day produces a loss of about 10 -10 . Sun's mass each year. Haymes' estimate for the loss of solar corona is much higher than the loss expected using measurements of the solar wind flux. One such solar wind measurement cited by Marti et al. would produce a corona loss which is 1/ 10000 the value in Haymes.
(10) Compared with the Earth's atmosphere, which at the surface has 1390 times the number of atoms per cubic centimeter as does the Sun's atmosphere at the photosphere.
(11) Thus, the Sun, primordially hot, gives out heat as it cools; such a Sun has a life of thousands of years. Then Mayer, in 1848, supposed that the Sun is heated by infalling meteorites. If they did the Sun would gain mass, affecting the size of planetary orbits. For his part, von Helmholtz, in 1854, showed that the Sun could radiate for tens of millions of years if it were contracting slowly. The reader is referred to the following sources for interesting and readable accounts of these mechanisms: Newcombe, Russell et al., 1927; Rudeaux and de Vaucouleurs.
(12) Parker argues that a man (with a body temperature of 37° => Celsius) can rub two sticks together to ignite them (producing a fire at several hundred degrees Celsius). He adds that there is no limit to the temperature which can be obtained by so rubbing the sticks. What he fails to recognize is that if the sticks are continuously rubbed together generating heat by friction, they will conduct heat from the region of the friction. This heat will eventually reach the stick-holder's hands. Even if the stick-holder wears asbestos gloves, the wood, which is slowly becoming hotter, will eventually catch fire. On the Sun the photosphere must likewise heat up, unless it is somehow cooled by the warmer regions surrounding it. Such cooling is not spontaneous in nature.
(13) The Sun's energy output is 4x10 26 watts. If the arriving electrons have the minimum energy for cosmic rays not modulated by the Sun (see below, p. 18), which is about 100 gigaelectron volts (100 GeV), the in flowing current density at the Sun's photosphere would be 6.5x10 -4 amperes per square meter. This value is a maximum; higher-energy electrons arriving lead to lower values for the electron current density.
(14) The flow of the solar wind particles is consistent with a potential barrier located at infinity (Lemaire and Scherer). Moving through the potential, the protons gain energy; as they flow away from the Sun and past the Earth's orbit the protons double their velocity, increasing from 150 kilometers per second in the corona to 320 kilometers per second at the Earth. The electrons' behavior is consistent with electrons being repelled by the distant Galaxy but also being repelled by a nearby Sun carrying an excess negative electrical charge, as was postulated much earlier by Bailey (1960).
(15) Zirlin remarks that spacecraft measurements of the solar wind plasma refer to protons, "but considerations of electrical neutrality require that the number of electrons per cubic centimeter equal the number of protons (although the velocities need not necessarily be the same)". Exact => electric neutrality cannot be assumed if the Sun is electrically powered from the outside, and thus we do not know the electron density in the solar wind unless it is measured.
(16) At the rate of solar wind flow, a sphere 100 AU in radius could be filled with plasma to 5 protons per cubic centimeter in about 10 000 years. However, moving at 300 km/ s, a proton would travel about ten light years in this time, about 6300 times 100 AU. The material flow would be about 10 17 tons (1/ 35 000 of an Earth).
(17) Conventionally, no origin other than "galactic" or "extragalactic" is ascribed to arriving cosmic rays not certainly identified with the Sun (Watson). The paucity of electrons in the cosmic ray flux is unconvincingly explained except by the notion of a star as an electron-deficient cavity in space.
116. Here again, as with stars (as noted earlier in Chapter Three), it is apparent that space itself is the primary determinant of behavior. The stars, planets, and other material in the space compete for the contents of space. These contents not only seem to be atoms and electrons but also a spatial infra-charge, which is not normally available to the body in the space, but whose presence governs all transactions which can occur.
117. Conventional descriptions of the planetary exospheres describe their electrical properties only as adjuncts to their magnetic properties hence they are there called magnetosphere. Here we consider their magnetic properties secondary manifestations of the fundamental electrified state (see Chapter Thirteen).
118. The screening of the planets from the Sun resembles the "view" that the valence electron has in, say, a sodium atom; it does not "see" the full nuclear charge because it is screened by the shells of the intervening electrons.
119. The Earth's equatorial velocity due to rotation is 0.46 km/ s, in orbit Earth travels 30 km/ s, the Sun moves through the Galaxy at 19 km/ s and orbits the galactic center at about 275km/ s. The galaxy itself may be traversing the universe at speeds near 540 km/ s. Only the first two motions are known with confidence.