Gunnar Heinsohn's Latest: 

Gunnar Heinsohn was awarded the 2015 New Direction LIBERTY AWARD 
Gunnar Heinsohn: The Creation of the Gods

The Creation of the Gods
by Gunnar Heinsohn

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Slavic chronological enigmas solved - Poland's Krakow in the 1st Millennium AD

The Archaeological Museum of Kraków (Poland) is to be commended for its chronological honesty. Though its curators do not deviate from chronological dogma, they refuse to report settlement strata that cannot be found in the city’s ground. Therefore, their exhibits for the 1st millennium AD jump from the 2nd right into the 9th century AD, with nothing to show for the 700 years in between...

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Arthur of Camelot and Aththe of Camulodunum

 “There is absolutely no justification for believing there to have been a historical figure of the fifth or sixth century named Arthur who is the basis for all later legends. There is, at present, no cogent reason to think that there was a historical post-Roman Arthur“ (Caitlin [T.] Green 2011, 12/13). True, except that...

The Tenth Century collapse

Mostly within the last fifteen years, many North and East European regions – stretching from Norway via the Baltic to the Black Sea – have been researched for traces of the vast wipeout of the 930s (give or take a decade). The depopulations have been as severe as in areas tied to the 3rd or the 6th c. plagues. Yet, written sources pointing to the causes or consequences of the 10th c. mass deaths appear to be missing entirely...
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Paper-making's mysterious 700-years secrecy

Wrecked metropolises of the 1st Millennium: a comparison

Gunnar Heinsohn is presenting here stratigraphic evidence for seven cities which he is discussing in his forthcoming book:  Aachen, Kalisz, Rome, Athens, Byzantium, Jerusalem, and Samarra, underlining the claim that each site experiences just one devastating destruction during the 1st millennium CE that, in each case, is the same that brings about, at the beginning of the 10th c. CE, the dramatic shift from the Early Middle Ages to the High Middle Ages.

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Ephesus in the 1st millennium AD: was it destroyed three times or once?

How did so many Roman elements (1st-3rd cent. AD) make it into the Viking Age (8th-10th cent.AD)? 

-How is it possible that sites devastated in the 3rd c. exhibit the same architecture and crafts as early medieval sites devastated in the 10th c. CE? How can one explain that sites dated to Antiquity (1st-3rd c.) are as stratigraphically close to the High Middle Ages (10th/11th c.) as Early Medieval sites if they are not contemporary?

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Gunnar Heinsohn in a nutshell

Bulgaria's early medieval capital of Pliska and Preslav: were they really built to resemble 700-year older Roman cities?

Bulgaria’s urban explosion during the Early Middle Ages, which matches the scope of city building in Rome’s imperial period some 700 years earlier, takes the excavators by surprise because even Constantinople cannot not show any new building between 600 and 800 CE. Actually “nothing is known about Byzantine cities from the 7th to the 9th c. CE“ (Kirilov 2006, 181). Whilst the most powerful empire of the Early Middle Ages lacks any urban ambition, the Bulgarian newcomers boldly recreate huge Roman urban ensembles whilst the rest of Europe appears to haven fallen asleep in a dark age. It is this absolutely extraordinary, even ravenous, urban appetite of former steppe dwellers that makes the Bulgarians sensational and unique all over Europe. 

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Sarmatians, Huns and Khazars: were they one and the same Confederation?

The origin of the 8th-10th c. Khazars is hidden in obscurity, though they are also called “Huns“ (by Theophanes the Confessor [758/60-817/818 CE] or by Moses of Kalankatuk [10th c.]). The ancestors of this ubiquituously tribute-collecting power are even believed to “have belonged to the empire of the Huns“ (JVB 2008), although they had to wait another mysterious 300 years before they could actually rule the Hunnic realm: “Very little [was known] about the Khazars – about their traditions, their funerary rites, their culture" until, in one of their fortresses, Atil, the excavators have found Hunnic-like “huts similar to yurts, which are characteristics of Khazar cities“ (Dmitry Vasilyev 2008).

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The Winchester of Alfred the Great and the Haithabu of his voyager Wulfstan: were they separated by 700 years?

According to a report published together with Alfred the Great’s (871-899 CE) translation of Paulus Orosius’ (385-410 CE) Histories, Wulfstan, the Early Middle Ages‘ most famous ocean voyager, around 880 CE, went “from Haethum [Haithabu/Hedeby] to Truso in seven days and nights, and that the ship was running under sail all the way. Weonodland was on his right, and Langland, Laeland, Falster, and Sconey on his left, all which land is subject to Denmark. Then on our left we had the land of the Burgundians [Bornholm; GH], who have a king to themselves. Then, after the land of the Burgundians, we had on our left the lands that have been called from the earliest times Blekingey, and Meore, and Eowland, and Gotland all which territory is subject to the Sweons; and WEONODland was all the way on our right, as far as Weissel [Vistula; GH] mouth. The Weissel is a very large river, and near it lie Witland and WEONODland" (King Alfred, The Geography of Europe, in Hakluyt 1893). (.../...)

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Goths of the 4th Century And Getae of the 1st Century - were they one and the same?

Since the Gothic-Getic cultures of Wielbark-Vistula and of Sântana de Mureș-Chernyakhov are contemporary, its 5,000 known sites were not annihilated by Huns (entering alliances with Goths) but struck simultaneously by the global conflagration that wiped out Rome and the ca 5,000 towns and cities (plus many of ca. 20,000 villae rusticae) of the Imperium Romanum. That devastation did not occur three times: in the 230s in Italy, in the 530s around Constantinople, and in the 930s in the Slavic Northeast (plus the Scandinavian Northwest and the Mesopotamian Southeast). Actually, we are looking at just one cataclysm that occurred, according to stratigraphy, simultaneously everywhere around the 930s CE. (.../...)

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Vikings without towns, harbors and sails... for 700 years?

Charlemagne's Correct Place in History

Why did Christianity spread so slowly across Europe in the First Millennium A.D.?

Islam and Arab Chronology - were Arabs really ignorant of writing and coinage for 700 years?

The Creation of the First Millennium

Gunnar Heinsohn just finished his newest work (in German), Wieviel Jahre Hat Das Erste Jahrtausend? ("How many years in the First Millennium?"), a 500-page challenge to the established chronology of the First Millennium A.D. We bring here, as an avant-première, an article in english by the author (with the friendly assistance of Clark Whelton), exposing aspects of the book's main theses.
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Gunnar Heinsohn: the Creation of the Gods

Gunnar Heinsohn: The Creation of the Gods
Translated from the German
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Gunnar Heinsohns Biography